MICHELLE THOMPSON: Now that we've taken a look at some of the census information and their terms, in order to get a better sense of what type of data is used for neighborhood analysis, we'll focus our attention on Roxbury, Massachusetts. Roxbury is one of 16 neighborhoods in the city of Boston. The next few slides will take a look at information on neighborhoods that is typically available throughout cities and towns in the United States.
This slide is a summary of information on the percent of small business loans for women-owned businesses overall in the city of Boston. But we're going to focus in on Roxbury in particular. This employment data is used to show the distribution of women-owned businesses and how they can leverage funds in this particular neighborhood. You can see that north Roxbury has approximately 35% to 45% of women-owned businesses with funding where southern Roxbury has 23% to 29%.
But in general, overall there is a large percentage of small business loans in the Roxbury neighborhood. But I think you have to begin to ask some questions about this information. What are the number of women-owned businesses? And in this particular year, from 1990 to 2002, how many businesses were provided with funding?
In the next slide, we're going to review information about minority-owned businesses as well. And you can see a high percentage of minority-owned businesses that receive funding from the Small Business Administration. But once again as we take a look at this information, the neighborhood planner needs to evaluate what type of information has been provided here.
It looks as though 100% of the minority businesses have received funding. However, what are the number of businesses? How many have been approved by the SBA? And throughout the years, once again 1990 to 2002, what are the range of loans that have been provided in this neighborhood?
In the last few years, in particular for this chart that's showing a 10-year span, the Massachusetts housing market has gone through an incredible boom. In this slide, we see an overview of the change in median housing prices over time from 1990 to 2000 and a summary of the information about median home income and purchasing power.
Overall in the metro Boston area, the amount of median family income on average is about $86,000. But the income to purchase a home is approximately $126,000. However, the median existing home price, the average home price, is about $325,000. So this gives you some indication of the lack of purchasing power for most residents in Boston.
This particular chart, the median household income in 2000, shows that, for the Roxbury area, on average, the income was below $30,000. I think you can get a pretty good idea of the lack of the ability of those neighborhoods and residents to purchase homes in Boston and in Roxbury in particular. As we can see in this slide, the median income by race gives us a better indication of the level of income overall for the city of Boston.
In comparison for example for the white race, we have approximately $45,000 to $47,000 where for black it's approximately $30,000. The information, however, compared to the previous slide shows that it doesn't matter what race you are. You may not be able to purchase a home in Massachusetts. This is really important for planners as they begin to develop strategies and policies for how to make affordable housing in the community.
This chart gives us an overview from 1999 to 2002 for the median home prices by neighborhood. Let's key in a little bit on Roxbury. And we can see over time that the prices, the average price for a home in their ability to purchase has dramatically shifted. So from this chart, we have to remember the neighborhood values changed and, in fact, have doubled, which eliminates or reduces the ability for a particular resident to purchase a home in the Roxbury neighborhood.
Now, we're going to shift a little bit away from data that has to do with land but more that has to do with social equity and also health. This summary chart provides information about asthma hospitalization. There have been many studies which talk about the rates of asthma related to poverty. As we can see for Roxbury, they're astronomical. They're off the charts.
What happened in Roxbury was that there was a study by a community-based organization that found out that there was a central bus area where all the buses for Roxbury and Dorchester were idling. Students went out with information from the National Institute of Health and were able to measure the levels of toxins based upon that information in the idling and the number of asthma rates.
After they collected this information, they were able to summarize the asthma rates, the toxins, and get a policy change so that no buses idle in that area. This was a major policy initiative not by the municipal planning, but by the neighborhoods. And that made a big difference in the quality of life.
Community planners in the city of Boston and nationwide not only have to consider toxins and impacts on children and families for information inside the home, but as well outside. We're going to explore some environmental issues a little bit later on. But for this particular slide, it shows that Roxbury, while not at the top in terms of elevated lead levels, it certainly has a significant amount for its community.
All the information that's been provided here and in the previous slides provides a picture of what Roxbury and some of the issues that are faced. And so planners must take those into consideration in terms of summarizing the information, but also displaying it in an accurate manner. We're going to continue to explore more information about Roxbury to give you a picture of what it's supposed to look like. And we have to talk about perception reality a little bit as we go forward.
In this particular slide, we're looking at the citizen ranking of quality of life. There are different surveys that have been completed, some from census data. And this particular one is from the Boston Police Department. And we can see from Roxbury over time that the citizens have indicated that their quality of life has increased.
In the next slide, however, we take a look at the citizen perception of safety by neighborhood within the same time period. For Roxbury, again, we see a change over time that is positive. That neighbors, the people who reside in this particular neighborhood, feel as though their neighborhood is safe, and it's been improving.
But that certainly is the perception of the neighbors, and there's always been a question about the balance between perception and reality. Let's take a look at this chart where the violent domestic crime incidences from 1999 to 2000 have significantly increased. Roxbury, unfortunately, has a reputation of having a high level of violent incidences that have been reported in that neighborhood.
Now, let's balance that with trust among neighbors. So when a planner starts looking at this information and says, the neighbors feel safe, and yet there's a high level of crime. What's missing from the data? What kind of reporting has been done? How has the information been interpreted? So that is where we're going to take a look at information gathering, analysis, and will lead us into our discussion of GIS a little bit further.
But for this particular chart, we can see from 1997 to 2001. In fact, there has been a mixed message here about trust among neighbors. As you can see in Roxbury, there has been an increase, a slight decrease, and then an increase again. As we've seen in the previous slides, there's been a variation between trust and perception of crime. And we have to wonder, what type of information and where are the resources not only for the planners, but for the neighbors?
I also wonder if we take a neighborhood outside, such as Hyde Park or West Roxbury, will the perception of Roxbury change? Will that trust issues about Roxbury change? So we have to, as planners, begin to look at the data sets and evaluate the sources and make sure that the information that we're projecting here is an accurate portrayal of the situation that exists.
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Map making is an event that we perform everyday. Whether we try to figure out the best route to a neighborhood park or travel cross-country, all of us "make maps." The process of creating maps for academic research is very much the same.
Data is gathered about a specific place, verified by theoretical or applied means and analysis is rendered. The ability of applied research to create sophisticated "maps" has been profoundly enhanced by using geographic information systems (GIS).
GIS allows users to create, collect, analyze and visualize data in a integrated database for use in a wide array of disciplines. Community based planners can utilize GIS along with contemporary data and local knowledge for capacity-building and long-term sustainability. The use of parcel information and census data as a 'data package' will be explored in this study room.
This video is part 3 of 8 in the Applied GIS: Turning Data into Information series.