SPEAKER 1: Welcome to Cornell Orchards. Cornell Orchards has approximately 70 acres of apples in production. Apples are typically harvested between the last week of August and the 1st of November.
Picking crews are brought in to harvest the apples as they ripen. Apples are picked and placed in wooden bins, which are brought to the orchard store, which are graded, bagged, and sold. Inferior fruit is put back into the 17 bushel bins and transferred to the cider press.
At the cider press, a dumping table takes the bushel bins, which holds 17 to 20 bushels at 42 pounds per bushel, and dumps them onto a sorting table. At the sorting table, again, damaged, bruised fruit not fit for cider production is removed, and the good fruit is transferred into a brush washer, which lightly washes the apples and sends them into a conveyor, which transfers them into our grinder. The grinder grinds the apples into a nice applesauce consistency, which is then packed in cloths in a press system called the rack and cloth press.
Racks are stacked one upon another until a 14 stack is produced. Each stack contains approximately 20 to 25 bushels of apples, which results in around 70 to 100 gallons of cider. When the rack is in place, the hydraulic ram pushes the rack against the metal plate, which expresses the cider, which is then rough filtered and pumped into a large dairy tanker truck, which delivers the cider to Cornell Dairy.
SPEAKER 2: From our 4,000 gallon tanker truck sitting outside, we're pumping off raw cider into our raw holding tank. We're filtering it on the way in. From here, the raw cider is being fed into our pasteurization system. From our raw holding tank, the cold cider is being pumped into the balanced tank. In a minute here, we'll start to see cider pumped in as the level probe calls for cider. And this is keeping a constant flow of raw product into the pasteurization system.
From the balance tank, the cold, raw cider is being pumped into the plate heat exchanger. The first section it enters is the regeneration section. We're using hot pasteurized cider to pre-warm the cold, raw cider. And this plate heat exchanger is about 93% efficient in terms of heat transfer.
From the regeneration section, we're coming out to our timing pump. So this pipe here is coming out of our regeneration section of the plate heat exchanger. At this point, the cider is about 140, 150 degrees.
It's being fed into the timing pump. The timing pump is giving us a constant flow of product into the heating section of the pasteurize, which is the most important part of the pasteurizer, because that's where our product is being heated up to our pasteurization temperature. As you'll see, the arrows are designating the flow of product. The stickers are still red at this point, denoting that the product is still unpasteurized and a raw product.
So as we flow into the plate heat exchanger, we're heating up to 170 degrees, coming out of the heat section of the press at 170 degrees into our holding tubes, which snake back and forth across the frame. Those holding tubes are holding that product at 170 degrees for approximately 20 seconds, ensuring that we have proper pasteurization or heat treatment of the products to ensure a 5-log reduction of bacteria, particularly those which might be pathogenic.
As we come out of the holding tubes, we're coming out at 170 degrees. We have two temperature probes which are checking the temperature. If for some reason we are below our set temperature of 170 degrees, our divert valve will go into divert and send our product back to the balance tank to be re-pasteurized.
At this point, we're running in forward flow. The product continues back into the plate heat exchanger into the regeneration section. We're using the cold, raw cider to cool the pasteurized cider. It comes out of the regeneration section into the press into our cold section. We're using 34 degree ice water to cool that cider back down to about 36, 37 degrees.
As we come out of the pasteurizer with our pasteurized cider, at this point-- and you'll see that at this point our pipelines are labeled in blue. We have a pasteurized product. We can send the pasteurized product to one of two tanks-- pasteurized tank one pasteurized tank two. Today, we're filling both of these tanks, as we're pasteurizing about 2,000 gallons of cider. This tank holds 500 gallons, and this tank holds 400 gallons. From these two tanks, we'll pump product to one of our two fillers.
Our cold, pasteurized cider is being pumped to this bag in a box filling machine. We're filling a five gallon low-low density polyethylene bags full of apple cider. These bags will be sent out to the dining units on campus and distributed or dispensed via our stainless steel refrigerated milk and juice dispensers. We're running about 100 of these five-gallon bags today. As well, we'll be running half gallons of cider on our rotary filler just to the left here.
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During apple season, which normally runs from late August to mid-April, Cornell makes about 2,000 gallons of cider a week. Fruit is picked from Cornell Orchards where it is sold fresh in the store or pressed into cider. The raw cider is pasteurized and bottled by Cornell Dairy in Stocking Hall.
Cornell Orchards is a working orchard, vineyard and fruit farm managed by the Department of Horticulture.